She found that when trees fall sick or are under attack, they send signals through the mycorrhiza. that much of the relevant plant sensor data is slow varying Imagine … if you, as a human, are able to plug in this big network. I haven't mentioned yet. Posted by hikingwiththeviking September 9, 2020 September 10, 2020 Posted in Bruce Trail, Hikes. Can the memory time window be extended to the whole life time of the tree - The results of this finding can now serve as a basis for restoration efforts such as the UN's trillion tree campaign by informing which types of tree species, depending on their associated mycorrhizal network, to plant in what particular area of the world. Winter is coming in fits and starts. Mycorrhizal ecologist Dr Merlin Sheldrake, said, "Plants' relationships with mycorrhizal fungi underpin much of life on land. from the plant over a longer time interval (moving window) For the first time ever, scientists have made a complete map of the "wood wide web," the underground network of bacteria and fungi that connects trees and passes nutrients from the soil to their roots, as Science Magazine explained. The expression wood-wide web is a play on the term world-wide web. Can the memory time window be extended to the beginning of the growth cycle of a plant starting in the spring - As a huge living communication network, In some trees I invite you… The Wood Wide Web. Prof. Simard identified hub trees, or “mother trees.” Mother Trees are the largest trees in forests that act as central hubs for vast below-ground mycorrhizal networks. Respect de votre vie privée. Last Name . The first global map of the network of roots, bacteria and fungi beneath the ground known of the “wood wide web” has been built by researchers amid fears it is under threat by climate change. Overnight, our first snow transformed the woods from a sepia tone landscape to a black and white photo. Everything might seem quiet...but beneath your feet is a flurry of conversation. scientist are now starting to explore it in Just over 20 years ago, ecologist Suzanne Simard discovered that trees do communicate with each other, and it's through a fungal network scientists have nicknamed the Wood Wide Web. The Wood Wide Web. Andrew Marr explores the life of trees with Peter Wohlleben, Kathleen Jamie, Ruth Pavey and Gary Fuller. Technology (sensor, actuator), data conditioning, overal goal discussion. Welcome to the Woodland Wide Web ~ Woodland Grange Primary School online. This morning, a thin frosting of damp flakes swirled out of the sky, outlining every feature of the forest floor, highlighting the trunks and tracing the twigs. gets an interesting experience, Sound, headphones mounted on the tree trunk. It involves a completely separate organism. Those trees that are sick or dying may dump their resources into the network, which might then be used by neighbors. These posts are invitations to learn the stories of the forests around you - not only the forests close to your base camp or home, but also forests in the places you visit or stay temporarily. AM fungi, more dominant in the tropics, promote fast carbon cycling. I invite you… The Wood Wide Web . This subterranean social network is much older than Facebook or Instagram – around 5 million years old. leafs are very sensitive to small fluctuations in the surrounding It is. As a p articipating festival, Into The Woods is like a living laboratory, a temporary miniature society. They are more vulnerable to climate change. ‘Wood wide web’—the underground network of microbes that connects trees—mapped for first time. Mitakuye Oyasin - commonly pronounced: me-talk-oo yah-sin - translates to "All My Relations." There is a “wood” wide web, literally. The expression wood-wide web is a play on the term world-wide web. Trees talk and share resources right under our feet, using a fungal network nicknamed the Wood Wide Web. If we create conditions through changing the type of fungi that are interacting with plants in the soil in which then those soils begin to stop accumulating carbon, or they start releasing it, then the rate at which we are seeing change will start accelerating even more. Imagine you're walking through a forest. Discussion and selection of actuator types: Electrical muscle stimulation / According to the research, 60% of trees are connected to EM fungi, but, as temperatures rise, these fungi - and their associated tree species - will decline and be replaced by AM fungi. help out their neighbours by sharing nutrients and information, warn about enemies such as A project on the idea of networks, looking at the discovery of the "wood wide web", or how trees communicate with each other, and drawing this together with communities of people and digital networks online. Experience it for yourself! be detected and amplified so that it can be experienced by the human via sound, muscle stimulation, etc..? Department of Informatics, University of Oslo, "Bubble burst" sound caused by nutrition flowing up the trunk Wood Wide Web. Wood Wide Web. Defining a human "interesting" experience in therms of statistical properties or in other terms. Can the increase in photosynthesis when breathing / talking to a plant (bubble burst frequency, CO2) The game was supported by and created in the spirit of 'Building a Europe for and with children'. Trees and other plants are able to send signals and communicate via airborne substances including hormones. Coined by the journal Nature, the term Wood Wide Web has come to describe the complex mass of interactions between trees and their microbial counterparts underneath the soil. It's thought that all the trees fondly known as mother trees, use this fungal network to supply shaded seedlings with sugars, giving them a better chance of survival. le Wood Wide Web. We’re so much closer to mushrooms than you think. ", .css-gw44ni-IconContainer{display:inline-block;height:1em;width:1em;vertical-align:-0.125em;margin-right:0.25em;}play.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link{color:inherit;}.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited{color:#696969;}.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited{-webkit-text-decoration:none;text-decoration:none;}.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link:hover,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited:hover,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link:focus,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited:focus{color:#B80000;-webkit-text-decoration:underline;text-decoration:underline;}.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:link::after,.css-1hlxxic-PromoLink:visited::after{content:'';position:absolute;top:0;right:0;bottom:0;left:0;z-index:2;}How trees secretly talk to each other, Pollution hits fungi that nourish trees - study, UK approves Pfizer Covid vaccine for use next week. I’ve read a lot of books over the years, but one in particular has left a huge imprint on my heart (and brain! View image of The mycelium of a fungus spreading through soil (Credit: Nigel Cattlin / Alamy) Imagine you're walking through a forest. If a tree needs nitrogen, a healthier tree can send some to the one in need. (photosynthesis), "tree drinking" - contact microphone / electronic stethoscope, Variations in electric conductivity in different areas of the plant, Trunk swaying in the wind - accelerometer, multiple branches. The Wood Wide Web. Jad A.: So this Wood Wide Web, is this just like the roots, like what she saw in the outhouse? It all started with truffles, fungi noted for a redolence extolled by epicureans. The new ‘Nigerian princes’ of hacking? “The wood wide web”—Robert Macfarlane’s latest peers beneath the earth The nature writer canters over philosophy, history, and science in a genre-bending discussion of the earth's subterrane by Hugh Thomson / May 8, 2019 / Leave a comment rattle sound data collection analogue/digital interface/setup. Both terms refer to communication networks. View image of The mycelium of a fungus spreading through soil (Credit: Nigel Cattlin / Alamy) a database. between different dimensions in such a way that the human This dataset will help researchers scale up from the very small to the very large.". Both terms refer to communication networks. If there isn't a reduction in carbon emissions by 2100, there could be a 10% reduction in EM - and the trees that depend on them. Then it melted. The human can then communicate with the fresh "memory" Wood Wide Web: une forêt urbaine à la fois réelle et virtuelle pousse à Bruxelles. We’re so much closer to mushrooms than you think. Underneath forests lies the wood wide web, a complex network of fungi, and bacteria connected to the roots of plants and trees. The new ‘Nigerian princes’ of hacking? Contact : Priscille Cazin et Griet Rigole for 32shoot asbl Sign up for the newsletter Email Address * Prénom / Voornaam / First name . Mycorrhizal network. Last Name -Created by : Threetwoshoot asbl . Several months back we shared a video on our Facebook of the “Wood Wide Web”, an intricate underground hyphal network created by mycorrhizal fungi and used to share information between host plants. The first global map of the network of roots, bacteria and fungi beneath the ground known of the “wood wide web” has been built by researchers amid fears it is under threat by climate change. By Emily Stone. The Wood Wide Web . It's called the "Wood Wide Web," and it might make you look at forests in a whole new light. Just like life in general there are challenges in areas such as energy, waste and food – as people have the same needs and behavior as … It's far more exciting than that and sophisticated and interesting and astonishing. “The wood wide web”—Robert Macfarlane’s latest peers beneath the earth The nature writer canters over philosophy, history, and science in a genre-bending discussion of the earth's subterrane by Hugh Thomson / May 8, 2019 / Leave a comment match the sensor/actuator dynamic range and to transfer data This will surely come as a surprise to most, as it did to the world of science when it was first discovered in the 19th century. The Wood Wide Web. from plant to plant. the Wood Wide Web. Forests have their own information superhighway, and it works much like ours, carrying information, trade—and cybercrime. contact with nature by physically connecting people with trees and plants via the The wood-wide web is not confined to woods, however. enabling the human to access the history of the growing shape of the plant, weather conditions ... ? A network in which trees and other large rooted plants send and receive sugars and nutrients to aid survival. Wood Wide Web: How Fungi Shape Our Forests Excerpted from the The Secrets of the Wood Wide Web Merlin Sheldrake, an expert in mycorrhizal fungi, is part of a research revolution that is changing the way we think about forests. Wood Wide Web: How Fungi Shape Our Forests Excerpted from the The Secrets of the Wood Wide Web Merlin Sheldrake, an expert in mycorrhizal fungi, is part of a research revolution that is changing the way we think about forests. I hiked Skinners Bluff in Wiarton where the fungi are out in huge numbers & varieties right now, likely thanks to the rain and humidity. genets link multiple Douglas‐fir cohorts Kevin J. Beiler Biology and Physical Geography Unit and SARAHS Centre, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7, Canada By plugging in to mycelial networks, the plants become more resistant to disease. Underneath forests lies the wood wide web, a complex network of fungi, and bacteria connected to the roots of plants and trees. The Wood Wide Web is a network of fungi that connect the roots of different plants, enabling them to talk, trade nutrients, but also to send toxics. "Just like an MRI scan of the brain helps us to understand how the brain works, this global map of the fungi beneath the soil helps us to understand how global ecosystems work," said Prof Crowther. How trees communicate via a Wood Wide Web September 26, 2016 2.39pm EDT. But in the case of the wood-wide web, communication is non-digital: it is chemical. The research reveals how important mycorrhizal networks are to limiting climate change - and how vulnerable they are to the effects of it. Trees: a wood wide web. Hidden under our feet is an information highway that allows plants to communicate and help each other out. Forums return to top Recent Posts from All Forums: View the most recent posts from all of WOODWEB's Forums in one location Adhesives Forum: Discussing the proper use of woodworking glues, contact cements, epoxies, and other bonding agents Architectural Woodworking Forum: Quality standards and production of wood mouldings, doors, windows, and other types of architectural work Leaf rattle sound - caused by wind. Mushrooms: The Wood Wide Web. Written by Dave Hansford A forest is a place of peace. sensing the "bubble burst" effect (photosynthesis/vacuum), Trunk swaying choir, wind - accelerometer, multiple branches, Self-organizing map may be used to automatically Gross Science explains. For centuries, fungi were widely held to be harmful to plants, parasites that cause disease and dysfunction. But in the case of the wood-wide web, communication is non-digital: it is chemical. Visit our blog to read regular posts with stories and reflections of visits to the woods. This network is the nervous system and blood stream of the organism. April 14, 2016 Register … Forums return to top Recent Posts from All Forums: View the most recent posts from all of WOODWEB's Forums in one location Adhesives Forum: Discussing the proper use of woodworking glues, contact cements, epoxies, and other bonding agents Architectural Woodworking Forum: Quality standards and production of wood mouldings, doors, windows, and other types of architectural work EM fungi, mostly present in temperate and boreal systems, help lock up more carbon from the atmosphere. "Through our daily activities we are very much counting on the carbon in the soil to stay there, and not only that, but to continue accumulating. Wood Wide Web Creative and experimental solutions. Ashley Lauren. genets link multiple Douglas‐fir cohorts Kevin J. Beiler Biology and Physical Geography Unit and SARAHS Centre, University of British Columbia Okanagan, Kelowna, BC V1V 1V7, Canada Mycorrhizal network or by sensors located directly on the tree/plants. of the plant in different ways, No.1: One-way communication - Lars Erik Realfsen, No.2: Two-way communication - Singing with the tree, No.4: the "electronic mushroom" project, Plant motion, intelligence, communication, Electrical signals and their physiological significance Overnight, our first snow transformed the woods from a sepia tone landscape to a black and white photo. Alone without the Wood Wide Web: Human Impacts The network is built on a web of hyphae connections that is barely visible to the human eye, and even more vulnerable to changes. The fungi that make up the Wood Wide Web are in the form of thin threads, called mycelium. Ed Yong. This "wood wide web", it turns out, even has its own version of cybercrime. singing to the plants tells the plants to relax and increase the growth rate? compared to what humans find interesting. These posts are invitations to learn the stories of the forests around you - not only the forests close to your base camp or home, but also forests in the places you visit or stay temporarily. Using machine-learning, researchers from the Crowther Lab at ETH Zurich, Switzerland, and Stanford University in the US used the database of the Global Forest Initiative, which covers 1.2 million forest tree plots with 28,000 species, from more than 70 countries. sabotage unwelcome plants by spreading toxic chemicals through the network. This subterranean social network is much older than Facebook or Instagram – around 5 million years old. For centuries, fungi were widely held to be harmful to plants, parasites that cause disease and dysfunction. Wood Wide Web Creative and experimental solutions. It's called the "Wood Wide Web," and it might make you look at forests in a whole new light. Wood Wide Web 2. Now the forest can be seen as a superorganism in which specific trees and fungi coevolved to build a complex network. The overall goal of this project is to develop new technology enabling humans to increase their Scientists call the fungi the Wood Wide Web because ‘adult’ trees can share sugars to younger trees, sick trees can send their remaining resources back into the network for others, and they can communicate with each other about dangers like insect infestations. Visit our blog to read regular posts with stories and reflections of visits to the woods. WWW - the Wood Wide Web. and store it in This BBC News video by 2D animator and illustrator Jules Bartl explains. "What we find is that certain types of microorganisms live in certain parts of the world, and by understanding that we can figure out how to restore different types of ecosystems and also how the climate is changing.". The forest is quiet and still. Toggle Navigation. hundred/thousand years of history that can be accessed by the song? "The types of fungi that support huge carbon stores in the soil are being lost and are being replaced by the ones that spew out carbon in to the atmosphere.". allows plants to communicate and help each other out. Trees: a wood wide web. When an icy shard catches me in the eye, I look back down, and am struck by the contrast. Influenced directly and concequentially by the COVID-19 pandemic. Dr Martin Bidartondo, an honorary research associate with Kew Gardens, said: "Now for the first time, we have this large-scale dataset that tells us what is happening - across the globe. Visits to our school are always welcome. Through the Wild Web Woods is an online game for teaching basic Internet safety in a fun and friendly fairy tale environment. Mycorrhizal fungi are those that form a … Professor Suzanne Simard is a biologist specializing in forest ecology at the University of British Columbia. Can the Mycorrhizal network be stimulated in such a way that the context of consciousness and intelligence. Mycorrhiza occur anywhere you find vegetation, from tropical rainforests to Arctic tundra, and they benefit the … It involves plant roots and fungi. Hidden under our feet is an information highway that Everything might seem quiet...but beneath your feet is a flurry of conversation. This network has been dubbed the Wood Wide Web. This subterranean social network, nearly 500 million years old, has become known as the "wood wide web". The first 800,000 doses will be available in the UK from next week, the health secretary says. Suzanne Simard is the scientist who made the discovery. Gross Science explains. WWW - the Wood Wide Web. Emily Stone . The Wood Wide Web. the Wood Wide Web. In cooler climates and freezing forests, the EM fungi were more rampant. It’s made of fungi and it is called the Emily Stone . The wood wide web. One way to handle this challenge can be to collect sensor data Posted: February 2, 2017. Architecture of the wood‐wide web: Rhizopogon spp. A new study shows that trees of different species can exchange large amounts of carbon via the fungal internet that connects their roots. For the first time ever, scientists have made a complete map of the "wood wide web," the underground network of bacteria and fungi that connects trees and passes nutrients from the soil to their roots, as Science Magazine explained. Several studies have demonstrated that mycorrhizal networks can transport carbon, TED Ed. Trees linking to the fungal network can Prof. Simard identified hub trees, or “mother trees.” Mother Trees are the largest trees in forests that act as central hubs for vast below-ground mycorrhizal networks. By. 'No corners cut' in vaccine approval, regulator says, US scuba boat captain charged over 34 fire deaths, 'One boy stood out to me - he's now my son', 'I wake up wondering if I still have a job', Why it feels like a government without a majority, 'We've lost a day of trade' over lockdown end date. in your body. This could potentially accelerate climate change. © 2020 BBC. Losing chunks of the wood wide web could well increase "the feedback loop of warming temperatures and carbon emissions". By. Researcher Discovers How Our Tree Relatives Talk To Each Other. Start the Week. Coined by the journal Nature, the term Wood Wide Web has come to describe the complex mass of interactions between trees and their microbial counterparts underneath the soil. phosphorus, nitrogen, water, defense compounds, and allelochemicals Now, an international study has produced the first global map of the "mycorrhizal fungi networks" dominating this secretive world. December 3, 2016 Josue Rivas. Imagine … if you, as a human, are able to plug in this big network. Jennifer: Yeah. The new ‘Nigerian princes’ of hacking? These threads do a very similar job to the metal and glass threads that make up our Internet. Mushrooms: The Wood Wide Web. Suivez l’expérience! By Claire MarshallBBC Environment Correspondent. 15, 2019 , 1:20 PM. Looking up, the lacy pattern of twigs embosses a network across the sky. The system has been Nick named Wood wide Web. Microphone(s) for "bubble burst" / accelerometer(s) for trunk swaying / microphone(s) for leaf Ashley Lauren. Mycorrhiza occur anywhere you find vegetation, from tropical rainforests to Arctic tundra, and … Just like life in general there are challenges in areas such as energy, waste and food – as people have the same needs and behavior as … By Gabriel Popkin May. April 14, 2016 The Wood Wide Web. Please enjoy exploring the various sections of our website and learning a little about life at Woodland Grange. Trees and other plants are able to send signals and communicate via airborne substances including hormones. When an icy shard catches me in the eye, I look back down, and am struck by the contrast. A new study shows that trees of different species can exchange large amounts of carbon via the fungal internet that connects their roots. Contact : Priscille Cazin et Griet Rigole pour 32shoot asbl Inscription à la newsletter Email Address * Prénom / Voornaam / First name . Show more. The game is available in 14 European language versions. Nature writer Robert Macfarlane meets a Wood Wide Web expert in this enlightening — and hilarious — New Yorker feature. Losing chunks of the wood wide web could well increase "the feedback loop of warming temperatures and carbon emissions". .css-8h1dth-Link{font-family:ReithSans,Helvetica,Arial,freesans,sans-serif;font-weight:700;-webkit-text-decoration:none;text-decoration:none;color:#FFFFFF;}.css-8h1dth-Link:hover,.css-8h1dth-Link:focus{-webkit-text-decoration:underline;text-decoration:underline;}Read about our approach to external linking. The Wood Wide Web. insect attack – or Professor Suzanne Simard is a biologist specializing in forest ecology at the University of British Columbia. Last week, a thick, white blanket of snow separated each stoic tree trunk. Prof Thomas Crowther, one of the authors of the report, told the BBC, "It's the first time that we've been able to understand the world beneath our feet, but at a global scale.". Produit par : Threetwoshoot asbl . Robert Krulwich: No, no, no, no, no, no. Using millions of direct observations of trees and their symbiotic associations on the ground, the researchers could build models from the bottom up to visualise these fungal networks for the first time. (2,300 words) In 2015, The Day reported on research which suggested that plants might be “intelligent”. Posted: February 2, 2017. Looking up, the lacy pattern of twigs embosses a network across the sky. the spectrum of the reflected sun light. As a p articipating festival, Into The Woods is like a living laboratory, a temporary miniature society. Huge number of sensors in nature - sensing/feeling the state of the forest/ecosystem in realtime We go there to soak up the stillness, the quietude. Covid-19: Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine approved for use next week in UK, Trump inciting violence, warns Georgia election official, Conception boat fire: Captain charged over 34 deaths in California, 'Volga maniac' murders: Russia suspect arrested over deaths of 26 elderly women, China #MeToo: Court to hear landmark case of intern versus TV star, India responds to Trudeau's 'ill-informed' remarks, Nike's diversity advert causing a backlash in Japan, Puerto Rico: Iconic Arecibo Observatory telescope collapses, Trump travel ban: 'I might finally see my sons again', Humans waging 'suicidal war' on nature - UN chief Antonio Guterres. Read about our approach to external linking. Researcher Discovers How Our Tree Relatives Talk To Each Other. Show more. It’s made of fungi and it is called the Mycorrhizal network. Andrew Marr explores the life of trees with Peter Wohlleben, Kathleen Jamie, Ruth Pavey and Gary Fuller. If a tree belonging … More → The Magical World of Forest Fungi . Ce groupe rassemble tous ceux qui ont envie de se joindre à l'expérience, de participer à l'aventure. Experience it for yourself! (1,100 words) Remote sensing over large areas: Last Name -Created by : Threetwoshoot asbl . A challenge with realtime "communications" with plants is December 3, 2016 Josue Rivas. transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation / electrical skin stimulation / skin vibrator stimulation ... Data conditioning via self-organizing map and or other techniques, Hardware implementation - Arduino DUE, Arduino. The wood-wide web is not confined to woods, however. Mitakuye Oyasin - commonly pronounced: me-talk-oo yah-sin - translates to "All My Relations." Wood Wide Web - "connect / listen" background. Mycorrhizal networks (also known as common mycorrhizal networks or CMN) are underground hyphal networks created by mycorrhizal fungi that connect individual plants together and transfer water, carbon, nitrogen, and other nutrients and minerals. The forest is quiet and still. Start the Week. Author. 'I turned my office into a cafe for cyclists', Steps debate the merits of entering Eurovision, .css-orcmk8-HeadlineContainer{display:-webkit-box;display:-webkit-flex;display:-ms-flexbox;display:flex;-webkit-box-pack:justify;-webkit-justify-content:space-between;-ms-flex-pack:justify;justify-content:space-between;}Covid-19: Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine approved for use next week in UK.css-1dedj2h-Rank{-webkit-align-self:center;-ms-flex-item-align:center;align-self:center;color:#B80000;margin-left:3.125rem;}1, Trump inciting violence, warns Georgia election official2, Conception boat fire: Captain charged over 34 deaths in California3, 'Volga maniac' murders: Russia suspect arrested over deaths of 26 elderly women4, China #MeToo: Court to hear landmark case of intern versus TV star5, India responds to Trudeau's 'ill-informed' remarks6, Nike's diversity advert causing a backlash in Japan7, Puerto Rico: Iconic Arecibo Observatory telescope collapses8, Trump travel ban: 'I might finally see my sons again'9, Humans waging 'suicidal war' on nature - UN chief Antonio Guterres10. air. Stuart Thompson VideoThe new ‘Nigerian princes’ of hacking? .css-14iz86j-BoldText{font-weight:bold;}Research has shown that beneath every forest and wood there is a complex underground web of roots, fungi and bacteria helping to connect trees and plants to one another. Video. Spend enough time among trees and you may get a sense that they have been around for centuries, standing tall and sturdy, self-sufficient and independent. This study ... provides key information about who lives where, and why. Natural or man-made disturbances to the forest can disrupt the wood-wide-web … Mycorrhizal fungi are those that form a symbiotic relationship with plants. Architecture of the wood‐wide web: Rhizopogon spp. Contact : Priscille Cazin et Griet Rigole for 32shoot asbl Sign up for the newsletter Email Address * Prénom / Voornaam / First name . There are two main groups of mycorrhizal fungi: arbuscular fungi (AM) that penetrate the hosts's roots, and ectomycorrhizal fungi (EM) which surround the tree's roots without penetrating them. it is possible to discriminate subtle changes in chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b concentrations in plants by measuring Electrical muscle stimulation arrays - abdominal belts NMES, Skin vibrator arrays based on miniature DC motors, Tree "drinking" detected by contact microphones By plugging in to mycelial networks, the plants become more resistant to disease. The Wood Wide Web is a network of fungi that connect the roots of different plants, enabling them to talk, trade nutrients, but also to send toxics. in plants, Plant reacts to sound (University of Missouri), Can Plants Actually Talk and Hear (Livescience), Bjørnar Prytz, Master Student - Adaptive LED, The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. Stuart Thompson, University of Westminster. This "wood wide web", it turns out, even has its own version of cybercrime. Ed Yong. The authors believe that this ‘wood wide web’ is deeply dependent on the local climatic conditions – temperature, rainfall, chemical composition in soils and geography. Spend enough time among trees and you may get a sense that they have been around for centuries, standing tall and sturdy, self-sufficient and independent.

wood wide web

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